Inspirational John Rawls Quotes

John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher. This post features some Inspirational John Rawls Quotes.

He held the James Bryant Conant University Professorship at Harvard University and the Fulbright Fellowship at the University of Oxford. Rawls received both the Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy and the National Humanities Medal in 1999, the latter presented by President Bill Clinton, in recognition of how Rawls’s work “helped a whole generation of learned Americans revive their faith in democracy itself.”

His magnum opus, A Theory of Justice (1971), was said at the time of its publication to be “the most important work in moral philosophy since the end of World War II” and is now regarded as “one of the primary texts in political philosophy”.

John Rawls Quotes
John Rawls Quotes

John Rawls Quotes

“The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance.”
― John Rawls

“Justice is happiness according to virtue.”
― John Rawls

“Many of our most serious conflicts are conflicts within ourselves. Those who suppose their judgements are always consistent are unreflective or dogmatic.”
― John Rawls

“I am particularly grateful to Nozick for his unfailing help and encouragement during the last stages.”
― John Rawls

“The concept of justice I take to be defined, then, by the role of its principles in assigning rights and duties and in defining the appropriate division of social advantages. A conception of justice is an interpretation of this role.”
― John Rawls

“An individual who finds that he enjoys seeing others in positions of lesser liberty understands that he has no claim whatever to this enjoyment.”
― John Rawls

“A conception of justice cannot be deduced from self evident premises or conditions on principles; instead, its justification is a matter of the mutual support of many considerations, of everything fitted together into one coherent view.”
John Rawls

“It may be expedient but it is not just that some should have less in order that others may prosper.”
― John Rawls

“Indeed, it is tempting to suppose that it is self evident that things should be so arranged so as to lead to the most good.”
John Rawls quotes

“In all sectors of society there should be roughly equal prospects of culture and achievement for everyone similarly motivated and endowed. The expectations of those with the same abilities and aspirations should not be affected by their social class.”
― John Rawls

“We may suppose that everyone has in himself the whole form of a moral conception.”
― John Rawls

“Greater intelligence, wealth and opportunity, for example, allow a person to achieve ends he could not rationally contemplate otherwise.”
― John Rawls

“The first statement of the two principles reads as follows. First: each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others. Second: social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both(a)reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and (b) attached to positions and offices open to all.”
― John Rawls

“A just system must generate its own support.”
― John Rawls

“The difference principle, for example, requires that the higher expectations of the more advantaged contribute to the prospects of the least advantaged.”
― John Rawls

“A scheme is unjust when the higher expectations, one or more of them, are excessive. If these expectations were decreased, the situation of the less favored would be improved.”
― John Rawls

“An intuitionist conception of justice is, one might say, but half a conception.”
― John Rawls

“Our concern is solely with the basic structure of society and its major institutions and therefore with the standard cases of social justice.”
John Rawls quotes

“No one deserves his greater natural capacity nor merits a more favorable starting place in society.”
― John Rawls

“To each according to his threat advantage does not count as a principle of justice.”
― John Rawls

“Many conservative writers have contended that the tendency to equality in modern social movements is the expression of envy. In this way they seek to discredit this trend, attributing it to collectively harmful impulses.”
― John Rawls

“Ideal legislators do not vote their interests.”
― John Rawls

“The even larger difference between rich and poor makes the latter even worse off, and this violates the principle of mutual advantage.”
― John Rawls

“The extreme nature of dominant-end views is often concealed by the vagueness and ambiguity of the end proposed.”
― John Rawls

“If A were not allowed his better position, B would be even worse off than he is.”
― John Rawls

“The intolerant can be viewed as free-riders, as persons who seek the advantages of just institutions while not doing their share to uphold them.”
― John Rawls

“I have tried to set forth a theory that enables us to understand and to assess these feelings about the primacy of justice. Justice as fairness is the outcome: it articulates these opinions and supports their general tendency.”
― John Rawls

“Men resign themselves to their position should it ever occur to them to question it; and since all may view themselves as assigned their vocation, everyone is held to be equally fated and equally noble in the eyes of providence.”
― John Rawls

“There is a divergence between private and social accounting that the market fails to register. One essential task of law and government is to institute the necessary conditions.”
John Rawls quotes

“Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust. Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others. It does not allow that the sacrifices imposed on a few are outweighed by the larger sum of advantages enjoyed by many. Therefore in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social interests.”
― John Rawls

Inspirational Thomas Kuhn Quotes

Thomas Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science. This post features some Inspirational Thomas Kuhn Quotes.

His controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom. Kuhn made several notable claims concerning the progress of scientific knowledge: that scientific fields undergo periodic “paradigm shifts” rather than solely progressing in a linear and continuous way.

Thomas Kuhn Quotes
Thomas Kuhn Quotes

Thomas Kuhn Quotes

“Truth emerges more readily from error than from confusion.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Normal science, the activity in which most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“To reject one paradigm without simultaneously substituting another is to reject science itself.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Perhaps science does not develop by the accumulation of individual discoveries and inventions.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“The man who succeeds proves himself an expert puzzle-solver, and the challenge of the puzzle is an important part of what usually drives him on.”
Thomas Kuhn

“And even when the apparatus exists, novelty ordinarily emerges only for the man who, knowing with precision what he should expect, is able to recognize that something has gone wrong.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Under normal conditions the research scientist is not an innovator but a solver of puzzles, and the puzzles upon which he concentrates are just those which he believes can be both stated and solved within the existing scientific tradition.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“The depreciation of historical fact is deeply, and probably functionally, ingrained in the ideology of the scientific profession, the same profession that places the highest of all values upon factual details of other sorts.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Unanticipated novelty, the new discovery, can emerge only to the extent that his anticipations about nature and his instruments prove wrong.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“If these out-of date beliefs are to be called myths, then myths can be produced by the same sorts of methods and held for the same sorts of reasons that now lead to scientific knowledge.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Observation and experience can and must drastically restrict the range of admissible scientific belief, else there would be no science. But they cannot alone determine a particular body of such belief. An apparently arbitrary element, compounded of personal and historical accident, is always a formative ingredient of the beliefs espoused by a given scientific community at a given time.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Unable either to practice science without the Principia or to make that work conform to the corpuscular standards of the seventeenth century, scientists gradually accepted the view that gravity was indeed innate.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“What man sees depends both upon what he looks at and also upon what his previous visual-conception experience has taught him to see.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Newton’s three laws of motion are less a product of novel experiments than of the attempt to reinterpret well-known observations in terms of motions and interactions of primary neutral corpuscles.”
Thomas Kuhn quotes

“The man who is striving to solve a problem defined by existing knowledge and technique is not, however, just looking around. He knows what he wants to achieve, and he designs his instruments and directs his thoughts accordingly. Unanticipated novelty, the new discovery, can emerge only to the extent that his anticipations about nature and his instruments prove wrong. . . . There is no other effective way in which discoveries might be generated.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Its assimilation requires the reconstruction of prior theory and re-evaluation of prior fact, an intrinsically revolutionary process that is seldom completed a single man and never overnight.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Gravity, interpreted as an innate attraction between every pair of particles of matter, was an occult quality in the same sense as the scholastics’ “tendency to fall” had been.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Max Planck, surveying his own career in his Scientific Autobiography, sadly remarked that “a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.”
― Thomas Kuhn

“Because scientists are reasonable men, one or another argument will ultimately persuade many of them. But there is no single argument that can or should persuade them all. Rather than a single group conversion, what occurs is an increasing shift in the distribution of professional allegiances.”
― Thomas Kuhn

Inspirational John Dewey Quotes

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer. This post features some Inspirational John Dewey Quotes.

John Dewey’s ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the founders of functional psychology.

John Dewey Quotes
John Dewey Quotes

John Dewey Quotes

“Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself.”
― John Dewey

“The most important attitude that can be formed is that of desire to go on learning.”
― John Dewey

“A problem well put is half solved.”
― John Dewey

“We only think when confronted with a problem.”
― John Dewey

“We do not learn from experience… we learn from reflecting on experience.”
― John Dewey

“Scientific principles and laws do not lie on the surface of nature. They are hidden, and must be wrested from nature by an active and elaborate technique of inquiry. ”
― John Dewey

“Arriving at one goal is the starting point to another.”
― John Dewey

“Art is the most effective mode of communications that exists.”
― John Dewey

“Every great advance in science has issued from a new audacity of imagination.”
― John Dewey

“The deepest urge in human nature is the desire to be important.”
― John Dewey

“To me faith means not worrying.”
― John Dewey

“The self is not something ready-made, but something in continuous formation through choice of action.”
― John Dewey

“Failure is instructive. The person who really thinks learns quite as much from his failures as from his successes.”
― John Dewey

“The good man is the man who, no matter how morally unworthy he has been, is moving to become better.”
― John Dewey

“The only way to abolish war is to make peace seem heroic.”
― John Dewey

“There’s all the difference in the world between having something to say, and having to say something.”
― John Dewey

“To find out what one is fitted to do, and to secure an opportunity to do it, is the key to happiness.”
― John Dewey

“Give the pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking; learning naturally results.”
― John Dewey

“Like the soil, mind is fertilized while it lies fallow, until a new burst of bloom ensues.”
― John Dewey

“Were all instructors to realize that the quality of mental process, not the production of correct answers, is the measure of educative growth something hardly less than a revolution in teaching would be worked.”
John Dewey

“We always live at the time we live and not at some other time, and only by extracting at each present time the full meaning of each present experience are we prepared for doing the same thing in the future.”
― John Dewey

“The good man is the man who, no matter how morally unworthy he has been, is moving to become better.”
― John Dewey

“Of all affairs, communication is the most wonderful.”
― John Dewey

“If we teach today’s students as we taught yesterday’s, we rob them of tomorrow.”
John Dewey quotes

“The path of least resistance and least trouble is a mental rut already made. It requires troublesome work to undertake the alteration of old beliefs.”
― John Dewey

“The educational process has no end beyond itself; it is its own end.”
― John Dewey

“The goal of education is to enable individuals to continue their education.”
― John Dewey

“For in spite of itself any movement that thinks and acts in terms of an ‘ism becomes so involved in reaction against other ‘isms that it is unwittingly controlled by them. For it then forms its principles by reaction against them instead of by a comprehensive, constructive survey of actual needs, problems, and possibilities.”
― John Dewey

“Skepticism: the mark and even the pose of the educated mind.”
― John Dewey

“The ultimate function of literature is to appreciate the world, sometimes indignantly, sometimes sorrowfully, but best of all to praise when it is luckily possible.”
― John Dewey

“The only freedom that is of enduring importance is the freedom of intelligence, that is to say, freedom of observation and of judgment, exercised in behalf of purposes that are intrinsically worth while. The commonest mistake made about freedom is, I think, to identify it with freedom of movement, or, with the external or physical side of activity.”
― John Dewey

“There is no such thing as educational value in the abstract. The notion that some subjects and methods and that acquaintance with certain facts and truths possess educational value in and of themselves is the reason why traditional education reduced the material of education so largely to a diet of predigested materials.”
John Dewey quotes

“Conflict is the gadfly of thought. It stirs us to observation and memory. It instigates invention. It shocks us out of sheep-like passivity, and sets us at noting and contriving…conflict is a sine qua non of reflection and ingenuity.”
― John Dewey